Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-supporting machine. People who need ECMO have a severe and life-threatening illness that stops their Heart or lungs from working properly.
The ECMO Machine replaces the function of the heart and lungs. People who need support from an ECMO Machine are cared for in a hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU).
Typically, people are supported by an ECMO machine for only a few hours to days but may require it for a few weeks, depending on how their condition progresses.
There are many overlaps and differences between the use of ECMO Machine in children and adults.
Basic components of ECMO Machine
- Membrane oxygenator.
- Heat exchanger.
- Venous reservoir.
- O2 blender.
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BASIC PRINCIPLE OF ECMO Machine
a. Venous cannula is usually placed in the right common femoral vein for extraction and an arterial cannula is usually placed into the right femoral artery for infusion.
b. The tip of the femoral venous cannula should be maintained near the junction of the inferior vena cava and right atrium, while the tip of the femoral arterial cannula is maintained in the iliac artery.
a. In Veno-venous ECMO Machine – venous cannulae are usually placed in the right common femoral vein for drainage and right internal jugular vein for infusion.
b. Alternatively, a dual lumen catheter is inserted into the right internal jugular vein, draining blood from the superior and inferior vena cavae and returning it to the right atrium.
c. Patient is anticoagulated with intravenous heparin and then the cannulae are inserted.
d. ECMO Machine support is initiated once the cannulae are connected to the appropriate limbs of the ECMO Machine circuit.
e. Cannula are usually placed percutaneously by the Seldinger technique, the largest cannulas that can be placed in the vessels are used in order to maximize flow and minimize pressures Bernoulli equation.
f. ECMO Machine require
g. Following cannulation, the patient is connected to the ECMO Machine circuit and the blood flow is increased until respiratory and hemodynamic status is stable.
Risks of being on ECMO Machine
- Kidney Failure.
- Leg Damage.
ECMO Machine Advantage and Disadvantage
|Advantage of ECMO Machine||Disadvantage of ECMO Machine|
|ECMO improve survival rate||Bleeding|
|An oxygenator ECMO circuit relies on a motor to pump blood.||Infection|
|good for Those who are sick because of breathing or heart problems.||Blood clot (thromboembolism)|
|Its Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH)||Loss of blood in hands, feet or legs (limb ischemia)|
|It maintains oxygen supply to the body while relaxing the lungs||Seizures|
|Stroke (part of the brain is damaged by loss of blood or by a blood vessel that bursts)|
|Blood clotting disorder (coagulopathy)|
Can the heart stop during ECMO?
The heart keeps beating during ECMO Machine treatment, which makes the surgeon’s job easier because the ECMO Machine does more pumping. The ECMO Machine has to ensure that adequate blood flow and oxygen is maintained in the body by temporarily managing the workload of the heart and lungs.
Of ECMO Machine The life support level rate is the highest. This is separate from the ventilator, which pumps oxygen through a tube through the windpipe down into the lungs. The Ecmo Machine procedure, in contrast, basically functions outside the body as the heart and lungs
What is the difference btw ECMO Machine and a ventilator ?
When patients are unable to take in enough oxygen on their own, a ventilator moves air in and out of the lungs. While an ECMO Machine circulates your blood through a machine to exchange carbon dioxide and deliver oxygen.
Ecmo machine cost
ECMO machine is very expensive, mostly its cost is due to the labor involved. A person on ECMO cannot stay outside the ICU and has to be constantly monitored for complications such as blood clots, bleeding, infection and loss of blood to the organs.
The cost of an average ECMO procedure is USD 73,125 and the total hospital cost of an average ECMO patient was USD 210,145 – demonstrating that ECMO is a highly resource-demanding procedure. The bulk of the cost is related to treatment in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).