Electronic Fetal Monitoring (EFM) provides graphic and numerical data. This is Fetal heart rate (FHR) and maternal Utero (UA) information provide during labor. Fetal heart rate often displays deceleration and acceleration in response to uterine contractions or fetal movements; Fixed The patterns are indicative of hypoxia. Examination of these patterns, the baseline level and variability characteristics can indicate the need to alter the course of labor with drugs or perform an operative delivery.
Fetal monitors detect FHR externally using ultrasound. transducer to transmit and receive ultrasonic waves; The frequency (or Doppler) shift of the reflected signal is proportional. In this case for the velocity of the reflective structure, the embryo Heart A transducer consists of one or more piezoelectric elements which converts an electrical signal into ultrasonic energy which can transmitter to tissues.
when it is ultrasonic energy After it is reflect back from the tissues, the transducer retransmits it An electrical signal that can use to create a wave. performance and recording and an audible sound created by FHR ( frequency shift of the ultrasonic signal).
ABOUT FETAL MONITOR
Fetal monitors are bedside units. which have a monitoring unit, cables, and electrodes. They are designs to measure, record and Displays FHR, uterine contractions, and/or maternal FHR, and heart rate before and during childbirth. this monitor Can feel FHR and uterine contractions indirectly through by placing electrodes directly on the mother’s abdomen and/or Fetal skull (or other exposed skin surface) and measure Changes in pressure within the uterus.
antepartum fetal monitor Commonly used long ago in physicians’ offices and clinics start of labor. Most hospital-based monitors have additional Capabilities including fetal and maternal ECG recording.
OPERATING PROCDURE AND PROBLE
This allows for continuous electronic FHR monitoring of the fetus and the mother. Indirectly, by applying an ultrasound transducer to the mother by attaching an electrode assembly to the abdomen, or directly Embryo after rupture of the amniotic membrane Uterus Contractions can record with the FHR. pressure transducer on the mother’s abdomen or directly Common errors include measuring changes in pressure in the uterus with a catheter.
double or halved rates, masked Fetal arrhythmias, and maternal cardiac presentation Another error that you rate as FHR is the reporting of false FHR. Deceleration during uterine contractions due to ultrasonic Signal-processing circuits sometimes holding the final FHR Signal peaks during noisy signals are among the reported complications of fetal scalp electrode application. Infection, uterine perforation, and soft tissue injuries; mostly as a result of poor technology Some investigators express concern. About the potential risks to the fetus Exposure to ultrasound.