Categories: Cardiology

Electrocardiogram ECG- Principle, Procedure1, Risks

Electrocardiogram ECG

An Electrocardiogram ECG is a simple test that can be used to check your heart’s meter and electrical exertion.

Detectors attached to the skin are used to descry the electrical signals produced by your heart each time it beats.
still, it should show that your heart is beating at an indeed rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute, If the test is normal.

numerous different heart conditions can show up on an Electrocardiogram ECG, including a fast, slow, or abnormal heart meter, a heart disfigurement, coronary roadway complaint, heart stopcock complaint, or an enlarged heart.


A line graph that shows changes in the electrical exertion of the heart over time. It’s made by an instrument called an electrocardiograph.

Abnormal results can signify several issues. These include blights or abnormalities in the heart’s shape and size An abnormal Electrocardiogram ECG can gesture that one or further aspects of the heart’s walls are larger than another meaning that the heart is working harder than normal to pump blood.

Working principle of Electrocardiogram ECG

The introductory principle of the ECG is that stimulation of a muscle alters the electrical eventuality of the muscle fibres. Cardiac cells, unlike other cells, have a property known as automaticity, which is the capacity to spontaneously initiate impulses.

What’s an ECG or an EKG? An Electrocardiogram( ECG or EKG) is a test that checks how your heart is performing by measuring the electrical exertion of the heart. With each heart beat, an electrical impulse( or surge) travels through your heart. This surge causes the muscle to squeeze and pump blood from the heart.

It indicates the rate and meter or pattern of compression of heart. it gives a indication about the condition of heart muscle and is used to diagnose heart diseases. it helps the croakers to determine whether the heart is normal, enlarged or if its certain regions are damaged.

Electrical signals are produced by condensation in the heart walls which drive electrical currents and produce different capabilities throughout the body. By placing electrodes on the skin, one can descry and record this electrical exertion in an ECG.

What are the types of lead systems available to record ECG

Limb Leads (Bipolar)

Well, the 2 leads positioned on the right and left wrist( or shoulders), AVr and AVL independently, and the lead positioned on the left ankle( or left lower tummy) AVf, make up a triangle, known as” Einthoven’s Triangle”. Information gathered between these leads is known as” bipolar”

The twelve ECG leads are all standardised and have their own names. The bipolar extremity leads are also called as a I, II and III. The unipolar extremity leads are called avR, avL and avF, and the casket leads are called V1 – V6.

As mentioned, the branch leads correspond of standard bipolar( I, II, and III) and stoked( aVR, aVL, and aVF) leads. The bipolar leads were so named historically because they record the differences in electrical voltage between two extremities

Augmented branch Leads( Unipolar)

The stoked unipolar branch leads aVR, aVL, and aVF, introduced by Goldberger in 1942, are an integral part of the 12- lead ECG(). Leads I, II, and III’ve 2 devoted electrodes, but the other 9 leads have a single devoted electrode, and another one constructed from the averaged inputs of multiple electrodes.

The three stoked leads are designated aVR, aVL, and aVF. An impulse directed toward a branch lead records a positive or upright deviation in that lead.

Goldberger’s central outstation is a combination of inputs from two branch electrodes, with a different combination for each stoked lead. It’s appertained to incontinently below as” the negative pole”. Lead stoked vector right( aVR) has the positive electrode on the right arm.

Casket Leads( Unipolar)

In addition to the three standard branch leads and the three stoked branch leads that view the electrical exertion of the heart from the anterior aeroplane , there are six precordial, unipolar casket leads.

The casket leads( V1 to V6) show the electrical currents of the heart as detected by electrodes placed at different positions on the casket wall. The precordial leads used moment are also considered as unipolar leads in that they measure the voltage in any one position relative to about zero implicit.

The twelve ECG leads are internationally standardised and have their own names. The bipolar extremity leads are called I, II and III. The unipolar extremity leads are called avR, avL and avF, and the casket leads are called V1 – V6.

Describe the pathway for electrical implicit conduction

The electrical impulse peregrination from the sinus knot to the atrioventricular knot( also called AV knot). There, impulses are braked down for a veritably short period, also continue down the conduction pathway via the pack of His into the ventricles.

The interatrial conduction pathway, also called Bachmann’s pack, refers to a preferential pathway of technical cardiomyocytes that grease the conduction of impulses between the gallerias. The pathway branches from the anterior internodal pathway at the position of the superior vena cava.

Anatomic substantiation suggests the presence of 3intra-atrial pathways

( 1) anterior internodal pathway

( 2) middle internodal tract

( 3) posterior internodal tract.

Describe the blood inflow pathway Electrocardiogram ECG

Blood comes into the right patio from the body, moves into the right ventricle and is pushed into the pulmonary highways in the lungs. After picking up oxygen, the blood travels back to the heart through the pulmonary modes into the left patio, to the left ventricle and out to the body’s apkins through the aorta.

What are the breadth of ECG Waveform

generally, the breadth value is in the0.5 mV to 1 mV range for heart rate between 60 beats per nanosecond and 100 beats per nanosecond.

The P- surge will display advanced breadth in lead II and lead V1. Such a P- surge is called P pulmonale because pulmonary conditions are the most common causes( Figure 3, P- pulmonale).

Ultramodern ECG machines record ECG signal in the bandpass from0.05( or0.5) Hz to 100( or 150) Hz as an assiduity standard. therefore, antagonists of the utility of measuring high frequentness within QRS complex prevailed.

How opinion can be done using ECG waveforms

An electrocardiogram( ECG or EKG) records the electrical signal from the heart to check for different heart conditions. Electrodes are placed on the casket to record the heart’s electrical signals, which beget the heart to beat. The signals are shown as swells on an attached computer examiner or printer.

Also known as an electrocardiogram or an EKG, an ECG is a test that detects and records the strength and timing of the electrical exertion in your heart. This signal is recorded on a graph paper that shows each phase of the electrical signal as it travels through your heart.

The different swells that comprise the Electrocardiogram ECG represent the sequence of depolarization and repolarization of the gallerias and ventricles.

What are the types of heart blocks Electrocardiogram ECG

Heart block is distributed as first-, second-, or third- degree

First- degree heart block is the least severe..

Alternate- degree heart block means that the electrical signals between your gallerias and ventricles can intermittently fail to conduct..

Third- degree heart block is the most severe.

Atrioventricular block( frequently shortened” AV nodal block”,” AV block” or AVB). Intra-Hisian blocks and Infra- Hisian blocks independently. Pack branch blocks.” Fascicular block” or hemiblocks.

Still, croakers call it “ acquired ” heart block, If you have heart block that you were not born with. It’s the most common type.

What are the factors of Electrocardiogram ECG machine

There are three main factors to an ECG the P surge, which represents depolarization of the gallerias; the QRS complex, which represents depolarization of the ventricles; and the T surge, which represents repolarization of the ventricles.

factors of Electrocardiogram ECG. Each ECG cycles consists of 5 swells P, Q, R, S, T corresponding to different phases of the heart conditioning.

P Wave. The P surge occurs when both left and right gallerias are full of blood and the SA knot fires.
PQ Segment.
Q Wave.
R Wave.
S surge.
QRS Complex.
ST Segment.

What’s Sensitivity of a Electrocardiogram ECG machine?

What’s Sensitivity. perceptivity is a measure of how well a machine literacy model can descry positive cases. It’s also known as the true positive rate( TPR) or recall. perceptivity is used to estimate model performance because it allows us to see how numerous positive cases the model was suitable to rightly identify.

Precision( also called positive prophetic value) is the bit of applicable cases among the recaptured cases, while recall( also known as perceptivity) is the bit of applicable cases that were recaptured.

Perceptivity is the metric that evaluates a model’s capability to prognosticate true cons of each available order. particularity is the metric that evaluates a model’s capability to prognosticate true negatives of each available order. These criteria apply to any categorical model.

perceptivity measures how frequently a test rightly generates a positive result for people who have the condition that is being tested for( also known as the “ true positive ” rate). A test that is largely sensitive will flag nearly everyone who has the complaint and not induce numerous false-negative results.

What’s the use of standby mode in Electrocardiogram ECG machine

The Standby function allows the clinician to suspend monitoring on a case.

It’ll be important for you to lie still and not talk during the Electrocardiogram ECG, so that you do not alter terracing. However, arms, or legs are veritably hairy, If your casket.

Electrocardiogram ECG machine

An Electrocardiogram ECG is a simple test that can be used to check your heart’s meter and electrical exertion. Very easy operating household and hospitalized


Recent Posts

What is pulse oximeter : best description, benefit, How to work-2022

What is pulse oximeter A pulse oximeter is a medical device that measures your oxygen…

4 days ago

How to work multi para monitor : definition, best producer, working principle 22

How to work multi para monitor and what is working principle of multi para monitor…

6 days ago

What is audiometry used for: definition, best producer, working principle22

What is audiometry used for ? Audiometry is a technique used to measure the hearing…

1 week ago

What Is An Electrolyte Analyzer: definition, producer1, work, best describe

  What Is An Electrolyte Analyzer? How It Works And The Advantages And Disadvantages Electrolytes…

2 weeks ago

How to work Fully automatic Biochemistry analyzer best method: Definition, Producer1

  Table of Contents How to work Fully automatic Biochemistry analyzer What is Biochemistry analyzer?…

2 weeks ago

How to work Polymerase Chain Reaction: Definition, PCR test1

How to work Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR Hear to pronunciation.( puh- LIH- meh- shafts chayn…

3 weeks ago

This website uses cookies.