What is pacemaker and how to work, principle, type, best describe22

What is pacemaker

A pacemaker is a device that is placed in a patient’s body, surgically inserted, to support the electrical system in the heart. This can stabilize abnormal heart rhythms and prevent problems that may be life-threatening or life-threatening.

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How to pacemakers work

The heart has its own electrical system, which tells the chambers of the heart when it is time to squeeze and how much to squeeze.

When the heart’s electrical system malfunctions or another problem occurs, the chambers of the heart can squeeze in the wrong order or squeeze too weakly to supply enough blood to the body that the body doesn’t supply enough it occurs.

To correct this process, pacemakers use electrical impulses to correct this type of malfunction.

What is pacemaker, How to pacemakers work

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It is also very important to know about pacemaker

  1. The pacemaker delivers an electrical impulse to help control the heart’s rhythm.
  2. It stores and sends information about your heart for a doctor’s review.
  3. Pacemakers can often be implanted with a minor surgery.
  4. The pacemaker regularly checks its battery. The doctor will also check the battery at follow-up visits.

Most pacemakers are small machines with two parts

A metal battery-powered computer that is usually implanted in the soft tissue under the skin in the chest.
Wires (leads/electrodes) that are implanted in the patient’s heart and connected to the computer.

The pacemaker continuously monitors the heartbeat and delivers electrical energy (as programmed by the physician) to make the heart move.

What is pacemaker, How to pacemakers work

 

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The pacemaker also stores information about the heart. This allows the doctor to better evaluate therapy and adjust pacemaker settings if necessary.

What is the basic principle of pacemaker

Fast ECG, VVI pacemaker. P waves occur randomly, unrelated to QRS complexes. Each QRS complex is preceded by a pacing spike, followed by a broad complex beat (power transmission from the electrodes through the heart is followed by slow myocyte-to-myocyte transmission).

What is pacemaker, How to pacemakers work

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The QRS complex for the standard ventricular pacemaker has a left bundle morphology (best shown in the lead aVL), indicating that the left ventricle is activated last, as the electrode is located in the right ventricle. (b) Unipolar electrode – large pacing spike (c) Bipolar electrode, small pacing spike.

What is bradycardia

Bradycardia is an abnormally slow heartbeat, usually less than 60 beats per minute. Because the chambers of the heart often do not contract enough to supply enough blood, the body does not receive enough oxygen and nutrients to function properly. As a result, one may feel tired or dizzy, have shortness of breath or faint.

 

What are the types of pacemakers

Depending on the situation, there may be one of the following types of pacemaker.

Leadless pacemaker:- A small pacemaker (about the size of a large pill) inserted using a catheter-based procedure. This device is attached to an inner wall of heart, which means it doesn’t need to use any wires.

Single chamber pacemaker:- This type usually transmits electrical impulses to the right ventricle of your heart.

Dual chamber pacemaker:– This type carries electrical impulses to the right ventricle and right atrium of the heart to help control the timing of contractions between the two chambers.

Biventricular pacemaker:– Biventricular pacing, also called cardiac resynchronization therapy, is for people who have heart failure and heart palpitations. This type of pacemaker stimulates both the lower heart chambers (the right and left ventricles) to make the heart beat more efficiently.

What is pacemaker, How to pacemakers work

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What is the difference between a pacemaker and an ICD

A pacemaker delivers electrical impulses to control the heart’s rhythm, but it cannot deliver the shock to correct the arrhythmia.

Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) work in a similar way to pacemakers, but can detect dangerous heart rhythms. Once these are detected, the ICD can deliver a shock to the heart to return it to its normal rhythm.

What is the advantage of pacemaker

Pacemakers are meant to improve quality of life and prevent disruptions caused by heart problems. Following are the benefits,

  1. Reducing many symptoms caused by heart rhythm problems, including chest pain, confusion, palpitations, nausea, confusion and more.
  2. Preventing unpleasant symptoms such as fainting caused by arrhythmias.
  3. Saving the patient’s life by stopping the heart from stopping.

What is pacemaker, How to pacemakers work

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What is the disadvantage of pacemaker

Complications related to pacemaker surgery or having a pacemaker are uncommon,

  1. There may be an infection in the heart near where the device is placed.
  2. There may be swelling, bruising, or bleeding at the pacemaker site, especially if you take blood thinners.
  3. Blood clots (thromboembolism) may form near the pacemaker site.
  4. There may be damage to the blood vessels or nerves near the pacemaker.
  5. The lungs (pneumothorax) may become compressed.
  6. Blood in the space between the lung and the chest wall (hemothorax).
  7. Movement (transfer) of the device or lead, which can lead to cardiac perforation (rare).

How long do pacemaker batteries last?

Depending on the model of the pacemaker and how often it is to assist the heart, pacemakers can now last as long as 12 or 18 years. The healthcare provider can tell before delivering that its average life will be tomorrow, and will also schedule a follow-up appointment to check the pacemaker’s battery level.

It is usually a simple process to replace the pacemaker battery, as it is more efficient than implanting the device in the first place.

What is pacemaker, How to pacemakers work

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What is the cost of a pacemaker

The cost of a pacemaker typically ranges from $5,500 to $10,900, with an average cost of around $6,800. The total cost of a pacemaker implant ranges from about $9,800 to $21,000, with an average cost of about $14,500. This process is often covered by insurance, although coverage and the amount you pay vary.

Heart failure pacemakers are typically more expensive, ranging in cost from $35,000 to more than $45,000. However, this price may vary in different cities.

How long does recovery take

Shoulder or arm pain may occur after surgery. The amount of pain and how much you can feel the pacemaker under the skin varies from patient to patient.

When leaving the hospital, a wallet card will be given listing the details of the pacemaker and contact information for emergencies. This wallet card is to be carried with you at all times.

As far as future surgeries are concerned, pacemakers’ battery life has improved over the years. The first implantable pacemakers contained a battery that lasted about three hours. Current pacemakers usually have batteries that need to be replaced every 8 to 15 years. The doctor will check the battery regularly to determine when to replace it.

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What is a pacemaker insertion

A pacemaker insertion is the implantation of a small electronic device typically placed in the chest (just below the collarbone) to help control slow electrical problems with the heart. A pacemaker may be recommended to ensure that the heartbeat does not slow down to a dangerously low rate.