Audiometry is a technique used to measure the hearing capacity of the ear or the ability to hear sounds. which consists of three parts:
mechanical sound transmission (middle ear function) neural sound transmission (cochlear function) and speech discrimination ability (central integration). audiometry used for many platform hospital and personals clinic etc.
Audiometry consists of tests of the auditory system or hearing function. This includes tests of mechanical sound transmission (function of the middle ear), neural sound transmission (function of cochlear), and speech discrimination ability (function of central integration).
A complete evaluation of the patient’s hearing loss should be carried out by trained personnel using specially designed equipment for this purpose.
In these, pure tones (single frequencies) are used to test air and bone conduction. These tests are done with an audiometer machine. Audiometer is an electrical instrument in which
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1) To measure the pure tone generator-cochlear function
2) a bone conduction oscillator, for measurement of individual thrust
3) An attenuator, for measurement of speech test
4) A microphone and earphones for air conduction test are included.
5) impedance audiometry, which measures the dynamics and air pressure of the middle ear system and middle ear (stapedial) reflexes, and auditory brainstem response (ABR), which measures nerve transmission time from the cochlea through the brainstem.
An audiometry test is used to measure the hearing in your ears. Sounds differ based on their loudness (intensity) and the speed of sound wave vibration (tone). Hearing occurs when sound waves stimulate the nerves of the inner ear. The sound then travels along nerve pathways to the brain.
Various audiometric techniques are used to identify a person’s hearing ability.
1) Pure tone audiometry.
2) Speech audiometry.
3) Supra threshold audiometry.
4) Self-recording audiometry.
5) Impedance audiometry.
6) Computer Administered (Microprocessor) Audiometry.
7) Subjective audiometry.
8) Objective audiometry.
A sound proof room is required to do this test. The patient wears headphones or earplugs attached to a device that sends sounds of varying volume and pitch to one ear at a time. Each time the patient hears a sound, he or she will be asked to respond by raising their hand or pressing a button.
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The tone of sound is measured in frequencies (Hz). Low bass tones range 50-60 Hz, high-pitched tones range 10,000 Hz or higher. Normal hearing range is 250-8,000 Hz at 25 dB or lower.
The pure tone audiometric air conduction test is performed by means of an earphone to deliver pure tone to the ear and measure the lowest intensity in decibels (dB), at which the tone is perceived 50% of the time.
This measurement is called the threshold. The test procedure is repeated for each ear at specific frequencies of 250 to 8000 Hz (Hz, or cycles per second), with the thresholds recorded on a graph called an audiogram.
Bone conduction testing is performed by placing an oscillator on the mastoid process and measuring the threshold at equal frequencies. Masking noise is sometimes used in the other ear or in the non-tested ear to prevent its participation in the test.
Looking at the audiogram graph, it has two axes x, y. The horizontal axis (x-axis) represents the frequency (pitch) from lowest to highest. The lowest frequency tested is usually 250 Hz (Hz), and the highest is usually 8000 Hz.
An audiogram is a type of psycho-acoustic test that helps an audiologist interpret speech test results, prescribe hearing aids, and help patients understand their communication issues.
An audiogram is a graph that shows the frequency in hertz on the abscissa and the hearing threshold in decibels at the frequency. The zero level on an audiogram is an arbitrary sound pressure level that indicates ideal normal hearing in young adults.
A hearing test is a measure of a patient’s ability to hear and understand speech. The Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) is the lowest decibel level at which a patient can repeat 50% of the test words correctly.
The speech threshold should be within ± 10 dB of the pure tone average at frequencies of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz. Speech discrimination scores are obtained using phonetically balanced, one-syllable words that are typically presented 25–40 dB above the hearing range obtained from pure-tone audiograms. audiometry used for hearing loss and others.
Hearing discrimination is usually good in purely conductive hearing loss when the presentation level is loud enough. Speech discrimination scores are variable in sensorineural loss.
Poor speech discrimination in the presence of less loss for pure tone increases the index of suspicion for retrocochlear disease by 75%.
For impedance audiometry, a hermetic seal is obtained by inserting a probe tip into the outer ear canal. The pressure in the enclosed cavity varies from + 200 to – 200 mm H2O and the change in the sound pressure level of a probe tone is graphed. It refers to the movement of the middle ear system. audiometry used for handicap certificate.
The contraction of the stapedius muscle in response to a loud sound is measured at the impedance bridge. In the normal ear, these reflex thresholds should be observed at 70 to 90 dB above the pure-tone threshold.
At 10 to 15 dB above the reflex threshold at 500 and 1000 Hz, the stapedius contraction should last for at least 9-10 seconds. Showing reflex loss, or failure to maintain contractions for 10 seconds, is one of the earliest signs of a retrocochlear disease.
For auditory brainstem response (ABR) audiometry, electrodes are placed on the patient’s top, earlobe, and forehead.
The clicks are delivered through the earphones, and a computer reports the time-off potential responses for the first 10 milliseconds after the sound stimulus. audiometry used for accurate data provide to doctor.
From these responses, a display of five distinct waveforms is generated at the estimated latency. This response must be reliably repeatable in order to be evaluated. Or there appears to be a response from one ear with an acoustic neuroma, and one ear with no identifiable response.
Conductive hearing loss can be caused by diseases of the outer ear canal (eg, wax) or by middle ear problems such as infections, tumors, ossification (otosclerosis), and birth defects.
Many conduction losses can be managed medically or surgically. audiometry used for basically this equipment used certification of hear losses
These diseases can occur due to the following reasons,
a) sensorineural hearing loss (cochlear or VIII nerve damage) maternal rubella, b) mumps,
d) noise shock,
e) the ontologic effects of aging (presbycusis),
f) Ototoxic drugs,
h) Meniere’s disease,
k) can be caused by conditions such as demyelinating diseases.
l) Tumors affecting the eighth nerve.
m) A patient with sensorineural hearing loss is usually a hearing aid patient.
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